[python爬虫]爬取天气网全国所有县市的天气数据

时间:2020-7-31 作者:admin


[python爬虫]爬取天气网全国所有县市的天气数据

所要用到的库

import requests
from lxml import etree
import xlwt

访问URL

这里我们要用xpath来解析数据,所以我们返回的网页数据格式为html
没学过xpath的可以看看这篇博客,写的还是很详细的
xpath链接
https://blog.csdn.net/u013332124/article/details/80621638

def ask_url(url):
	# 伪装请求头 
	header = {
		"User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/83.0.4103.116 Safari/537.36"
	}
	response = requests.get(url, headers=header)
	# 以html格式返回数据
	html = etree.HTML(response.text)
	return html

解析数据

所要爬取的数据有一下
[python爬虫]爬取天气网全国所有县市的天气数据
先是爬取每个省份URL的尾部,然后一个个访问。

def get_data(url):
	html = ask_url(url)
	base_url = 'http://www.weather.com.cn'
	province_name = []			# 省份名字
	# province_url = []			# 省份的URL
	city_name = []				# 城市名称
	weather = []				# 天气现象
	wind_direction = []			# 风向
	wind_power = []				# 风力
	max_temperature = []		# 最高温
	min_temperature = []		# 最低温
	data = []					# 数据汇总

	province_name_decode = html.xpath('//div[@class="lqcontentBoxheader"]//a[@target="_blank"]/text()')
	for i in range(len(province_name_decode)):
		# print(province_name_decode[i].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())
		province_name.append(province_name_decode[i].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())
	province_url = html.xpath('//div[@class="lqcontentBoxheader"]//a[@target="_blank"]/@href')			# 省份的URL
	# print(province_url)
	for j in range(len(province_url)):
	# for j in range(0, 1):
		temp_url = base_url + province_url[j]
		province_html = ask_url(temp_url)

		# 城市名称
		city_name_decode = province_html.xpath('//div[@class="hanml"]/div[1]//td[contains(@width, "83") and contains(@height, "23")]/a[1]/text()')
		for n in range(len(city_name_decode)):
			# print(city_name_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())
			city_name.append(city_name_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())

		# 天气现象
		weather_decode = province_html.xpath('//div[@class="hanml"]/div[1]//div[@class="conMidtab3"]//td[@width="89"]/text()')
		for n in range(len(weather_decode)):
			# print(weather_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())
			weather.append(weather_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())

		# 风向和风力
		wind_direction_decode = province_html.xpath('//div[@class="hanml"]/div[1]//div[@class="conMidtab3"]//td[@width="162"]/span[1]/text()')
		for n in range(len(wind_direction_decode)):
			# print(wind_direction_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())
			wind_direction.append(wind_direction_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())
		wind_power_decode = province_html.xpath('//div[@class="hanml"]/div[1]//div[@class="conMidtab3"]//td[@width="162"]/span[@class="conMidtabright"]/text()')
		for n in range(len(wind_power_decode)):
			# print(wind_power_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())
			wind_power.append(wind_power_decode[n].encode('raw_unicode_escape').decode())

		# 最高温
		max_temperature_decode = province_html.xpath('//div[@class="hanml"]/div[1]//div[@class="conMidtab3"]//td[@width="92"]/text()')
		for n in range(len(max_temperature_decode)):
			# print(max_temperature_decode[n])
			max_temperature.append(max_temperature_decode[n])

		# 最低温
		min_temperature_decode = province_html.xpath('//div[@class="hanml"]/div[1]//div[@class="conMidtab3"]//td[@width="86"]/text()')
		for n in range(len(min_temperature_decode)):
			# print(min_temperature_decode[n])
			min_temperature.append(min_temperature_decode[n])

	data.append(city_name)
	data.append(weather)
	data.append(wind_direction)
	data.append(wind_power)
	data.append(max_temperature)
	data.append(min_temperature)
	return data

保存数据

保存成excel文件

def save_data(data, save_path):
	"""
			保存数据
			:param data:
			:return:
			"""
	# 创建workbook对象
	workbook = xlwt.Workbook(encoding='utf-8', style_compression=0)
	sheet = workbook.add_sheet('天气', cell_overwrite_ok=True)  # 创建工作表
	col = ('城市名', '天气', '风向', '风力', '最高温', '最低温')
	for i in range(len(col)):
		sheet.write(0, i, col[i])
		print("正在下载第%d列数据" % (i + 1))
		for j in range(len(data[0])):
			sheet.write(j + 1, 0, data[0][j])
		for j in range(len(data[1])):
			sheet.write(j + 1, 1, data[1][j])
		for j in range(len(data[2])):
			sheet.write(j + 1, 2, data[2][j])
		for j in range(len(data[3])):
			sheet.write(j + 1, 3, data[3][j])
		for j in range(len(data[4])):
			sheet.write(j + 1, 4, data[4][j])
		for j in range(len(data[5])):
			sheet.write(j + 1, 5, data[5][j])
	workbook.save(save_path)

得到的结果截图
[python爬虫]爬取天气网全国所有县市的天气数据

完整的代码稍后给链接

声明:本文内容由互联网用户自发贡献自行上传,本网站不拥有所有权,未作人工编辑处理,也不承担相关法律责任。如果您发现有涉嫌版权的内容,欢迎进行举报,并提供相关证据,工作人员会在5个工作日内联系你,一经查实,本站将立刻删除涉嫌侵权内容。